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Marketing, Advertising & Technologies



Ad Flight

How long an advertising campaign is aired.

Ad Injection

When a malware injects unwanted ads on your website.

Ad Networks

Through the Ad Networks (companies), advertisers will be connected to the website that wants to host advertisements.

Ad Server

Ad Server is a web server that stores data about advertisements, which will then be delivered to website visitors.

Ad Space

The space on a Website where you can put ads.

Ad Stacking

When many ads are on top of each other, but only the one on the top is visible. False impressions are then created for every ad.


Catch the attention of possible clients by drawing their attention to your product, service, or event.

Affiliate Ad Fraud

Also called “cookie stuffing” since the fraudster takes part or all the affiliate’s commission by using cookies to track the traffic.

Affiliate Marketing

It is an advertising model where a company pays the affiliate for each visitor or customer brought, thanks to the affiliate’s marketing strategies.

Affinity Marketing

A partnership between a business and an organization in order to target marketing products and services.


A business or organization that provides a particular service, especially one that arranges transactions between two parties.


Avatar is a digital person or a character assigned to an Internet user in the virtual world, for example, in a computer game or the metaverse.



Business-to-Business. Commerce transactions from one business to another.


Business-to-Consumer. Commerce transactions from businesses to end consumers.


Most important data routes between interconnected networks and dominant routers online.


A type of advertisement situated on a webpage, which appears as a box, bar, or column.

Below The Fond

When you need to unfold or scroll to see the ad.


An ad too big for the area in which it should fit.

Blind Link

A hyperlink in the form of a text or picture, which does not mean where it leads to.

Blind Traffic

When blind links produce web visitor traffic.


A blockchain is a decentralized, distributed, and often public digital ledger consisting of records called blocks that are used to record transactions across many computers so that any involved block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks.

Bounce Rate

Percentage of initial visitors that, instead of remaining on the website, “bounce” to another one.


An agency that offers a restricted service, e.g., it does just creative work and not media planning.


Computer software program which enables you to access content on the World Wide Web.



Computer memory that stores data for easy retrieval.


The process from the beginning to the end for creating an advertising project.

Central gateways

This type of gateway is a dominant model of virtual worlds controlled by a single entity. Typically, one person or group is in control and operates the entire metaverse.

Click Fraud

Automated clicking by click farms or bots to generate fake impressions.

Click Rate

Rate of impressions, which resulted in a click-through.

Click Through

The action of clicking on a hyperlink and be then redirected to a webpage.


The amount of click-throughs, where the user who clicked on a hyperlink has been redirected to a web page.


The sequence of links of a website visitor.


Cloud or cloud computing is currently the preferred way to run computers in a data center. The cloud represents the approach of separating the physical hardware, such as servers and storage, from the actual software - the operating system and applications.


Short for comprehensive, which is a layout as close as possible to the final one.


An appeal, which compares two competitive brands.


A kind of pop-up window. Exit consoles are launched when the visitor leaves the website.

Contextual Advertising

The ad shown “in context” with the product or service the ad is trying to sell.


A conversion happens when the web visitor becomes a paying customer.


Small pieces of data stored by a web browser on user’s local computer.

Copy Writing

The act of writing persuasive marketing messages for an advertisement to prompt action.


The one who writes the text for an advertisement.


Cost Per Click. A payment model by which the advertiser pays the publisher for each click-through.


Cost Per Day. A payment model which shows how much the advertiser pays for its ads daily.


Cost Per Thousand. A payment model by which the advertiser pays for every 1000 impressions of its ad.


Cost Per Sale. The advertiser pays for the ad, just when the visitor who clicked on it buys the product or service.


Cost Per Transaction. The advertiser pays for the ad, just when the visitor who clicked on it buys the product or service or generates a transaction.


Same as CPM but used just when it refers to a targeted campaign.


Technology used to create advertising material.


Customer Relationship Management. How a company manages interactions with its customers.


Cryptocurrency is digital assets that also function as a medium of exchange.


Call To Action. It is a marketing message that pushes visitors to act in a certain way, e.g., sign up for a newsletter.


Click-Through Rate. It is a ratio indicating how many people viewed the webpage and how many clicked on an ad.


Dark Site

A pre-made and non-visible website, which can be activated as soon as an emergency or crisis occurs.

Decentralized gateways

Unlike centralized, decentralized metaverse is governed by the community where users run the meta-world. Decentralized networks are based on blockchain. This approach ensures that there is no monolithic control.


A type of banner on a site when paying banners are not available.


Statistical data regarding the information of a certain population of interest, e.g., age, gender, education, etc.

Digital twins

Digital twin is a digital representation of a tangible or intangible object from the real world in the digital world.

Direct Marketing

When an advertiser sends the marketing message directly to his clients or potential ones.

Direct Response

An ad that enables you to respond directly to the sender.


Direct Marketing Association. A trade association for advertisers and marketers.


Domain Name Server. A computer that translates domain names into IP addresses.

Domain Name

It is a name that identifies a website.

Domain Spoofing

Creation of a fake trusted domain that looks like an URL from a credible company.


End Date

When an advertising campaign ends.



Through this software, you add multimedia animations to your ad.


How long the ad is online.

Forced Click

When a visitor is forced to click on an ad without his consent.

Free-to-Play-Game (F2P)

Free-to-play (F2P) games are online games that can be played free of charge.


How often the ad is shown to the same visitor during a certain time.



GameFi is a combination of the terms Gaming and Decentralized Finance (in short, "DeFi"') and describes the integration of Blockchain applications in the gaming sector for monetization purposes, among other things.


Ads will be shown based on the physical location of the visitor.


Graphical Interchange Format. A bitmap image format.

Governance tokens

Governance tokens give holders the ability to influence decisions affecting the core protocol, product or feature roadmap, hiring and staffing, and changes to governance parameters.



The act of requesting a page, graphic, audio, or sound file to a web server.

Hot Linking

When a website links to an image, which is displayed on one or more other sites.

House Ads

A kind of banner that the publisher runs on its website when no paying advertisement is available for that specific space.


HyperText Markup Language. The computer programming language used when you want to display content on the world wide web.


An electronic link that redirects one’s browser to another location.



Immersion describes the effect produced by a virtual reality (VR) environment that causes the user's awareness of being exposed to illusory stimuli to fade into the background to the point where the virtual environment is perceived as real.


How many times users have probably seen an ad.

Insertion Order

A document that defines the characteristics of an advertising campaign.


Multiple interconnected networks using TCP/IP to communicate.


The amount of ad spaces for sale on a website available during a specific time frame.

IP Address

A string of numbers associated with a computer or computer network.



A programming language that allows you to write software and run it on different platforms.


The cross-platform, object-oriented scripting language used in web development.


Joint Photographic Experts Group. A graphics format that displays pictures.

Jump Page

A website that redirects you to its new website/URL.



A significant word or phrase used by users to search content online.

Keyword Density

How often keywords appear on a webpage.


Landing Page

A specific page of a website appears after clicking on an ad.


A person or business that is interested in an offer.

Lead Generation Fraud

A fraudster in the form of a bot or a human that can not only generate impressions but also fill out the information, creating fake leads.

Lead Product

A product that aims to generate new leads.

Life Time Value

The monetary value of a client to a company over his lifespan as a customer.

Line Item

Ad’s unit sold to the advertiser.


Make Good

Modifications made by a publisher to an advertiser for not reaching the promised impressions or too many load errors.


The act of spreading malware through online ads.

Media Kit

A document provided by the publisher to the potential advertisers, which contains information about the publisher’s company.


1) The prefix meta- means “between.” In the context of the metaverse, “between the real and virtual world”.

2) New name for the Facebook Inc. company (Meta Platforms, Inc.).


The metaverse is a consistent and persistent digital space created by the convergence of virtual, augmented, and physical reality - including the sum of all virtual worlds, augmented reality, and the Internet.

Mind Share

How strong the consumer awareness is regarding a certain brand.


The conversion of a service, process, or resource into money.



How you should correctly use the internet.


A person new to the internet.


Non-Fungible Token (NFT) is a cryptographically unique, indivisible, irreplaceable, and verifiable token that represents a specific item, whether digital or physical, in a blockchain.

NFT Fragmentation

NFT fragmentation is equivalent to “redistribution of assets”. Insufficient liquidity has become an urgent problem to solve in the future of the NFT market.

NFT Gaming

NFT gaming defines games that are based on NFT technology.

NFT Marketplace

NFT marketplace is a web platform where users buy, sell and create NFTs.


A specific part of the market is composed of people who will appreciate your product or service with a high probability.



A procedure by which a user agrees to receive follow-up communication.


A procedure by which a user agrees to stop receiving follow-up communication.


Page View

Takes place when a user requests to load a webpage.

Pay Per Click

In this payment model, advertisers pay when the ad is clicked.

Pay Per Impression

In this payment model, advertisers pay for every 1000 impressions.


Presentation made by an advertising agency, in order to win the representation of its client.

Pixel Stuffing

Ads in a 1X1 pixel frame that cannot be seen by the human eye but still generate fake impressions.


The hardware or software on which software applications operate on.


Players collect rewards that help them progress and stay motivated to continue playing the game.


Players can earn cryptocurrencies while playing blockchain-based games.

Point of Purchase

The area where the client concludes his purchase.

Pop Up

An advertisement that is shown in a secondary smaller window when the user is loading a website.


A website with enough information for the visitor so that he does not need to look for it on another website.


Adverting from a company which explains to customers how they managed to deliver high-quality products or services.

Proxy Server

A server application between the user and the internet, which is used to store frequently accessed data.


Qualitative methodology, which classifies people’s characteristics and attitudes based on their purchasing behavior and lifestyle.


Also known as Partner or Affiliate, is the website operator.



How a website or ad is positioned, compared to other websites or ads.

Rate Card

A document where the prices and ad space availability are visible.


How many visitors saw your website.


A term that describes immediate results.

Referring Page

A webpage with a link, which brings the visitor to your website.


Webpage requests that come from a similar geographical area.


To have complete access to a website, visitors are requested to insert some personal details.

Remnant Space

Ad space remained unsold before it is free to be used again and sold at a reduced price at the last minute.


When a browser tries to retrieve a page and its elements from a server.

Retargeting Fraud

When a retargeting campaign is triggered because of scammer bots.

Return Visits

How many times the same user comes back to a website over a certain period of time.


Request For Proposal. When an advertiser asks for some advertising arrangements.


Request For Quotation. When an advertiser asks for a price for placing the ad.

Rich Media

When an ad is rich in audio, video, or graphics.

Right Hand Read

Ad situated on the right-hand side of the right page.


With an ad roadblock, the advertiser owns 100% of the page views over a certain period of time.


Run Of Category. An ad placement appearing everywhere on an ad network or website within a category.


Return On Investment. A performance measure, which evaluates if the monetary benefits from an ad campaign are above or below the amount of money spent on it.


Run Of Network. An ad placement appearing on any webpage of any website within the ad network.


Run Of Site. An ad placement appearing simply everywhere on a website.


An ad placement in rotation on one or more webpages, which means it will not be the only one to be shown.


Really Simple Syndication. An XML-based format, which allows you to share web content, e.g., headlines.


Search Ad Fraud

Advertisers purchasing ads on fake websites, which appear high on search engine results, just because fraudsters make usage of the keyword stuffing technique.


Search Engine Marketing. A form of internet marketing, which promotes websites through a search engine.


Search Engine Optimization. The process of improving your website through organic search engine results.


A series of interactions by a user, which expires after 30 consecutive minutes of inactivity.


A software that allows browsers to play multimedia animations.


An ad placement that is much taller than wide.


A short and memorable phrase used in advertisements to persuade a target group.

Soft Sell

Using a subtle persuasion to generate a sale.


Unsolicited commercial messages sent online to a large number of people.


A software program constantly browsing the internet, from one link to the next.

Splash Page

Or “jump page” is a special entrance to a website in the form of a large window.


The testing of two or more advertisements sent to different groups to see which ad is the most effective.


Pay to sponsor a part of your website to increase brand awareness.


Optional standards (dimensions, sizes, names) for online advertising made by the Interactive Advertising Bureau.

Start Date

When the advertising campaign starts.


The records kept by an ad serving software about every time an ad is served and clicked.


A website on which visitors stay longer than usual.


Advertising messages not perceived as such by a conscious mind.


Tag Line

Slogan or phrase containing the most important information an advertiser would like to communicate.


An advertisement that targets a certain subsection of the market, based on demographics.


A statement that testifies the benefits received from the product or service, usually made by a customer or celebrity.


1) certain types of cryptocurrency.

2) asset or economic good.

3) an object (in software or in hardware) that represents the right to perform some operation.


The amount of visits a user pays to a website.

Traffic Fraud

Publishers buying additional traffic to charge more for the ad placement. Unfortunately, the biggest part of the traffic may come from third-party websites full of bot traffic.


Unique Visitors

The actual total number of people visiting a website during a reporting period of time.


To make an additional, more expensive offer after a customer committed to a sale, but before he/she pays for the product or service.



Kind of ad, which persuades you to click on it or share it with other people.

Viral Marketing

An advertising strategy by which web visitors quickly share information about your company and/or your product to other people.


Visitor browsing on your website.

Volume Discount

A price adjustment based on how many page impressions at a specific rate the advertiser wants to commit to.


Web 1.0

Web 1.0 was the first stage of the World Wide Web revolution, usually referred to as the read-only Web. Websites were informational and contained only static content connected by hyperlinks, or in simple terms, there was no CSS, no dynamic links, and no interactivity such as users logging in, commenting on blog posts, etc.

Web 2.0

Web 2.0 refers to a web era that emphasizes user-generated content, usability, participatory culture, and interoperability for end users.

Web 3.0

Web 3.0, also known as the Third Generation Internet, is the next evolution of the World Wide Web. It features a data-driven semantic web that employs a machine-based understanding of data with the goal of developing a smarter and more connected web experience for users.

Web Page

A collection of information on the world wide web that can contain video, graphics, or sound and is shown in a browser window.

Web Server

A computer which runs website’s web pages on the world wide web.

Web Site

Hyperlinked web pages under the same domain name.


The online broadcast of video and/sound.


The person who administers a website.

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